PASSIVE VOICE (Thể bị động)


Ex: Active: Susan wrote a letter.

      Passive:A letter was written by Susan.

      Active: He has bought some books.
     Passive: Some books have been bought (by him).





Simple present

V1 / Vs(es)

Am / is / are + P.P

Present continuous

Am / is / are + V-ing

Am / is / are + being + P.P

Present perfect

Has / have + P.P

Has / have + been + P.P

Simple past

V2 / V-ed

Was / were + P.P

Past continuous

Was / were + V-ing

Was / were + being + P.P

Past perfect

Had + P.P

Had + been + P.P

Simple future

Will / shall + V1

Will / shall + be + P.P

Future perfect

Will/ shall + have + P.P

Will / shall + have + been + P.P


Ex: People speak English all over the world. 

→   English is spoken all over the world.

      They built the museum in 1990.               
→    The museum was built in 1990.
      Ann is washing the clothes.                      
→    The clothes are being washed by Ann.
      We have watched this film several times.
→   This film has been watched several times.
      She will give us another chance.              

→   We will be given another chance.

 They had made an announcement before I came.  

→   An announcement had been made before I came.


- Nếu tân ngữ trong câu bị động chỉ sự vật, sự việc thì ta dùng giới từ with thay by

Ex: Smoke filled the room. →    The room was filled with smoke.

- Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by + O; trạng từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + O



1. Dạng động từ khiếm khuyết (Modal verbs)

        Modal verbs (can / may / should / ought to…) + be + P.P

Ex: We should encourage her to take that job.   

→ She should be encouraged to take that job.

      They ought to send us the application form.   

→    The application form ought to be sent to us.

2. Dạng động từ nguyên mẫu: to be + P.P

Ex: She wishes them to inform the news.    

→ She wishes to be informed the news.

3. Dạng V-ing: being + P.P                           

 Ex: I like being invited to parties.


4. Dạng   câu có 2 túc từ

                           S + V + Indirect O + Direct O

Cách 1:      S + be + P.P + Direct O + by O

Ex: My brother has bought   me    some English books.

           S                  V           In.O             D.O

 → I have been bought some English books by my brother.


Cách 2:       S + be + P.P + to / for + Indirect O + by O

Ex: My brother has bought me some English books.

 →   Some English books have been bought for me by my brother.

     My friend told me an interesting story

 →   An interesting story was told to me by my friend.


-          Các động từ thường đi với giới từ to là: give, send, show, lend, promise, hand, pay, read, throw, wish, offer, …

-          Các động từ thường đi với giới từ for là: buy, get, make, do, leave, save, …


5. Dạng động từ chỉ ý kiến:say, think, report, believe, rumour, …

Active:      S + say / think + that + S2 + V2 + O2 …

Passive:    - It + is / was + said / thought … + that + S2 + V2 + O2 …

                 - S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought … + to-inf … (hành động trong 2 mệnh đề xảy ra đồng thời hoặc hành động 2 xảy ra sau)

                - S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought … + to have + V3   (hành động 2 xảy ra trước)
                - S2 + is / was/ are … + said / thought + to be + V-ing   (hành động 2 dùng thì tiếp diễn)

Ex: People said that he had left.

    → It was said that he had left.

    → He was said to have left.

Ex: They think he is a good doctor.       

    → It is thought that he is a good doctor

    → He is thought to be a good doctor.

Ex: They said that John was living in London.

    → It was said that John was living in London.

    → John was said to be living in London.

Ex: They expect that the price of oil will go down next month.

 →   It is expected that the price of oil will go down next month.

 →   The price of oil is expected to go down next month.


6. Dạng nhấn mạnh (Cleft sentences):

            It is / was + focus + who / that + be + P.P

Who: chỉ người

That: chỉ vật, nơi chốn, thời gian

Ex: They gave Mary a lot of presents.

 →   It was Mary who was given a lot of presents.

       My friend sends me some flowers.

 →   It is some flowers that are sent to me by my friend.

 * Note:

 - Get + P.P có thể dùng thay cho be + P.P trong một số trường hợp

Ex: She got impressed by his sincerity.

 → She was impressed by his sincerity.


7. Thể sai khiến, nhờ vả:

Active:   S + have + O người + V1 + O vật

Acitive: S + get + O người + to-inf + O vật

Passive: S + have / get + O vật + V3 + (by + O người)

Ex: I had him repair my bicycle yesterday.   

 → I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
      I get her to make some coffee.               
 → I get some coffee made (by her)

8. Động từ chỉ giác quan: see, watch, hear, look, taste,…

Active:   S + V + O + V1 / V-ing ..

Passive: S + be + V3 + to-inf / V-ing …

Ex: They saw her come in.            

 → She was seen to come in.

       They saw the lorry running down the hill.  

 → The lorry was seen running down the hill.

9. Động từ let:

Active:    S + let + s.o + V1 …

Passive: S + be + allowed + to-inf ..

Ex: He let me go.        → I was allowed to go.


10. Động từ make:

Active:   S + make + s.o + V1 …

Passive: S + be + made + to-inf …

Ex: My mother made me clean the room. 

   → I was made to clean the room.

11. Sau “There be” có thể dùng động từ nguyên mẫu dạng chủ động hoặc bị động

Ex: There is a lot of work to do / to be done.

      There are some letters to write / to be written.