Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh lớp 12 HKII


Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh lớp 12 HKII




MODAL VERBS  (Động từ khiếm khuyết)

* may / might 

- Ở hiện tại: may / might + V1: có lẽ, diễn tả một suy đoán không chắc chắn

- Ở quá khứ: may / might + have + V3/-ed: có lẽ đã, diễn tả một suy đoán không chắc chắn đã xảy ra trong quá khứ.

Ex: I phoned him last night but no one answered. He ___________ (be) out.

      I phone him but no one answers. He ______________ (be) out.

- May còn dùng diễn tả một lời xin phép, cho phép hoặc một lời chúc.

Ex: May I go out? – Of course, you may.

      May you have a good holiday.

* must / mustn’t

- must + V1: phải, diễn tả một sự bắt buộc có tính chủ quan, không dùng ở quá khứ

- must + V1: chắc là, diễn tả một sự suy đoán có cơ sở, có mức độ chắc chắn.

- must have + V3/-ed: chắc là đã, diễn tả một suy đoán chắc chắn đã xảy ra trong quá khứ

- mustn’t + V1: không được phép, diễn tả một sự cấm đoán

Ex: -I haven’t phone Ann for years. I ____________ (phone) her tonight.

      -Lan failed the exam. She ______________ (make) a lot of mistakes in her paper.

      -Visitors _____________ (feed) the animals in the zoos.

      - He has read that book for 4 hours. It  ______________ (be) very interesting.

* need / needn’t

- need + to V1: cần (chủ động)

- need + V-ing = need + to be V3/-ed: cần được (bị động)

- needn’t + V1 = don’t have to + V1: không cần  

Ex: My car is very dirty. It needs ____________ (wash).  

      My car is dirty. I need ________________ (wash) it.

   The car is not very dirty. You needn’t ______________ (wash) it.

* should / shouldn’t

- should + V1 = ought to + V1 = had better + V1: nên

- should have + V3/-ed: lẽ ra đã nên, diễn tả một việc lẽ ra phải nên làm trong quá khứ

- shouldn’t + V1 = ought not to + V1 = had better not + V1: không nên

Ex: If you want to pass the final exam, you ______________ (study) hard.

       She failed the final exam. She __________________ (learn) harder.

       You _____________ (smoke). It is harmful.

* have to + V1: phải, diễn tả điều bắt buộc có tính khách quan , dùng trong quá khứ (had to + V1), hiện tại (have / has to + V1) và tương lai (will have to + V1)

Ex: -Children _____________ (wear) uniform when going to school.

       -Yesterday, I felt very ill. I ________________ (see) the doctor. 

* Used to: đã từng

KĐ: S + used to + V1 ..

PĐ: S + didn’t use to + V1 …

NV: (Wh) + did + S + use to + V1 ..?

Ex: When I was a child, I used to cry at night.

       Did you use to eat ice-cream when you were young?

* Can / could

- Can + V1: có thể, dùng diễn tả khả năng ở hiện tại, diễn tả lời yêu cầu, đề nghị hoặc gợi ý.

Ex: I can ride a horse.

       Can you help me?

- Can’t + V1: không thể  (dùng ở hiện tại)

- Could + V1: có thể, dùng diễn tả khả năng ở quá khứ,  diễn tả lời yêu cầu hoặc đề nghị lịch sự

Ex: Nacy could ski by the age of ten.

      Could you open the door, please?

- Couldn’t + V1: không thể (dùng trong quá khứ)

* Would rather / would rather not: thích, muốn …

            S + would rather (+not) + V1 + (than) ….

            S + would rather (that) + S + V QKĐ / QKHT …

Ex: I would rather stay at home.

       I would rather stay at home than go to the movie.

       I would rather you (go) ______________ home now.

       I would rather you (go) ______________home yesterday.



  I/ Choose the underlined part among A, B, C, or D that needs correcting:

11. Nancy was refused to be given a scholarship to study abroad two days ago. She could have been very sad.

                      A                                B                             C                                                  D

12. There is no parking sign here so you would better  take your car out of here now.

         A                                                B                 C                                     D

13. If you are free today, you will join our party at the club.

    A         B                                C                      D

14.  The company is going to held a party to celebrate the establishment .

                                  A           B                      C                        D

15. The manager would dismiss his secretary if the secretary makes such stupid mistakes  in the reports.

                                    A                                B                                    C                              D          

16. The little girl says that her parents have been out but she could contact them easily

                           A                                                B                        C                      D

17. The men are able work better than they did last year.

           A                    B          C                      D

18. When we were children, we use to climb over the wall to get into the neighbor’s garden.

                       A                          B                  C                           D

19. If the boy had come home last night, he will have seen a gift lying on the table.

     A                   B                                              C                            D

20. Do you please tell us the way to the nearest post office here?

       A                       B                                 C                          D

 II/.Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the sentences which is closest in meaning to the given one.

21. You have to do your homework every day.

      A. Your homework has been done every day.       B  Your homework has to do by you every day.

      C  Your homework has to be done every day.       D  Your homework have to be done every day.

22. You shouldn’t tell her the news. It might kill her.

            A.  She shouldn’t be told by the news. She might be killed.   

            B.  The news shouldn’t be told her. She might be killed.        

            C.  She shouldn’t be told the news. She might be killed.

            D.  She shouldn’t been told the news. It might be killed.

23. It wasn't obligatory to submit my assignment today.

            A. My assignment must have been submitted today.   

            B. I needn't have submitted my assignment today.

            C. My assignment was required to submit by today.

            D. I mustn't submit my assignment today.

24. It's time we left for the disco.

A. We may leave for the disco now.                            B. We needn't leave for the disco now.

C. We should leave for the disco now.                                    D. We must have left for the disco now.

25. It was a mistake of you to lose your passport.

   A. You shouldn't have lost your passport.                            B. There must be a mistake in your passport.

   C. You needn't have brought your passport.                                     D. Your passport must be lost.

26. My car keys are possibly in the kitchen.

   A. My car keys should be put in the kitchen.                                    B. My car keys cannot be in the kitchen.

C. I don’t know whether my car keys are in the kitchen.  D. My car keys might be in the kitchen.

27. Is it possible for me to come to your house at about 7pm?

A. Must I come over to your house at about 7pm?            B. Could I be coming to your house at about 7pm?

C. Can I come to your house at about 7pm?                     D. Will I come to your house at about 7pm?

28. You must never take off your helmet while you are riding a motorcycle.

      A. If you are riding a motorcycle, you needn’t wear a helmet.

      B. When you are riding a motorcycle, wearing a helmet is not a must.

      C. You needn’t wear a helmet whenever you are riding a motorcycle

D. Helmets must be worn at all times when you are riding a motorcycle

29. I have done this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key.

      A.The answer in the book should be wrong!       B. The book needn't have a wrong answer.

      C.There is a wrong answer in the book.              D. The answer in the book must be wrong!

30. Can you tell me directions for the station near here?

A. Would you tell me where to get to the station near here?      

B. Could you tell me how to get to the station near here?

C. Could you tell me what to get to the station near here?         

D. Must you tell me the way to get to the station near here?

III. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

31. He said that he _________ enter the examination room because he was late.

A. mustn’t                    B. couldn’t                   C. needn’t                    D. might not

32. “__________ taking me downtown on your way to work this morning?” – Not at all.

A. Can you        B. Why don’t you          C. Could you please            D. Would you mind

33. You haven’t eaten anything since yesterday afternoon. You ______ be really hungry!

A. must                        B. might                       C. will                          D. can

34. “Why are you so late?” – I _________ take my aunt to the airport. The traffic was terrible!”

A. might                       B. could                       C. had to                      D. should

35. I wonder who drank all the milk yesterday. It _____ have been Mary because she was out all day.

A. can’t                        B. must                        C. could                       D. needn’t

36. Susan ___________ hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.

A. might not                 B. couldn’t                   C. can’t                                    D. mustn’t

37. Ted’s flight from Britain took more than 11 hours. He _____ be exhausted after such a long flight.

A. had better                B. can                          C. must                                    D. should

38. You ___________ do the job if you didn’t speak Japanese fluently.

A. couldn’t                  B. can’t                        C. won’t be able to                  D. needn’t

39. When I was young, I __________ go fishing with my father.

A. was used to             B. would                      C. may                         D. used to

40. You ________ take along some cash. The restaurant may not accept credit cards.

A. has to                      B. had better                C. can                          D. could

41. Your wedding ring is very precious. You ___________ lose it.

A. must                                    B. could                       C. needn’t                    D. mustn’t

42. “How old do you think Peter is?”  - “I just looked at his driver’s license. He ______ 33.”

A. might be                  B. may be                    C. must be                   D. should be

43. It ________ rain this evening. Why don’t you take an umbrella?

A. had better                B. might                       C. must                                    D. could

44. You ________ forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time.

A. don’t have to                       B. mustn’t                    C. couldn’t                   D. can’t

45. It’s a school rule. All the students _________ wear a uniform.

A. have to                    B. might                       C. must                                    D. need

46. Passengers _______ smoke until the signs have been switched off.

A. mustn't                    B. can't                                    C. needn't                    D. mightn't

47. We must obey the traffic laws. Otherwise, we __________ be punished.

A. will                          B. might                       C. should                     D. need

48. This is the key. You _________ forget to take it with you when going out.

A. should                     B. have to                    C. mustn’t                    D. needn’t

49. You _________ introduce me to Dr. Gray. We have already met.

A. shouldn’t                 B. needn’t                    C. mustn’t                    D. couldn’t

50. “I have got a headache.” – “You _________ go to see the doctor.”

A. may                         B. could                       C. should                     D. might




(Động từ khiếm khuyết trong câu bị động)


         Active:   S + can / will / shall / may / could / must … + V1 + O

         Passive: S + can / will / shall / may / could / must … + be + V3/-ed + by + O


Ex: People should protect the living environment.

      The living environment ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      She will meet me at the airport.

      I ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* Note:

 Một số những hình thức động từ khác sử dụng tương đương như động từ khiếm khuyết




(be) able to + V1

(be) going to + V1

have / has / had to + V1

used to + V1

(be) able to be + V3

(be) going to be + V3

have / has / had to be + V3

used to be + V3




1. This book ___ be written as soon as possible.

      A. can be                           B. ought                                   C. must                                    D. should        

2. Dont phone Ann now. She ___ be having lunch.

      A. might                             B. can                                      C. must                                    D. has to

3. This road is very narrow. It ___  to be widened.

      A. might                             B. needs                                   C. mustnt                                D. may

4. That building is too old, so it needs  ___.

      A. builds                            B. to build                                C. building                               D. be built

5. Youre having a sore throat. Youd better___ by the doctor.

      A. to check                        B. checked                      checked                           D. checking

6. My mother permitted me to go out at night. She said, “You ___ go out tonight.”

      A. may                               B. have to                                C. must                                    D. ought to         

7. He advised me to take an English course. It ___  early.

      A. should have been taken                                                B. should take                          C. will have taken        D. may take

8. You ___ ring the bell; I have a key.

      A. mustnt                          B. neednt                                C. couldnt                               D. shouldnt

9. It must ___ without delay.

      A. be done                         B. have been done                   C. do                                        D. be doing

10. By the time a baby has reached his first birthday, he should ___ sit up or even stand up.

      A. to be able to                  B. able to                                 C. to be able                            D. be able to

11. Many birds will ___ more than 3,000 miles to reach their winter homes.

      A. flying                            B. fly                                       C. be fly                                  D. flew

12. The pen wont write; It ___ out of ink.

      A. must run                        B. must be running                  C. must have run                D. must have ran

13. The line is busy;  the telephone  ___ now.

      A. must be used                 B. must have used                   C. must use            D. must have been using

14. She told me that shed rather ___ in the restaurant.           

      A. not to be  served           B. not serving                          C. not be served                       D. serving not

15. “Are you still going to Florida for vacation?” “Yes, but I really ___because I dont have much money.”

      A. shouldnt                       B. cant                                    C. mustnt                                D. wont

16. “Did Peter go downtown by car or by train?” “He ___by train because his car was in the mechanics.”

      A. must go                         B. has to go              C. had gone